It is a well-known fact that Roman and Persian power in the Middle East were decisively challenged by Arab invaders during the mid-7th century. In Muslim sources these invasions are definitively linked to the rise of Islam. In other words, the invading armies came in the name of Muhammad, bearing the Qur’an, eager to establish their religion. Except that there is precious little evidence for this.
We search in vain in the primary record for references to the invaders’ religion, prophet or book. In fact, it would take a full 30 years after his supposed death date for the first Arabic reference to Muhammad to appear. Before this date some of the coins of the invaders even bore an image of a human figure with a cross! Hardly a ringing statement of Islamic supremacism. In short, there is much more here than meets the eye.
For much more on the early history of Islam please see ‘The Mecca Mystery – Probing the Black Hole at the Heart of Muslim History’